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建筑節能
 
能源是發展國民經濟、改善人民生活的重要物質基礎。目前我國能源形勢相當嚴峻,在今后的長時期內也將難以緩解。為使我國國民經濟持續、穩定、協調發展,提高環境質量,必須節約使用能源,逐步扭轉能源浪費嚴重的狀況。
  我國與同緯度許多發達國家相比,冬天氣候更冷,夏天氣候較熱,南方空氣濕度還很高。在這種濕熱環境下,我國房屋的保溫隔熱性能,卻要比發達國家差得多。墻體、屋頂和門窗單位面積的傳熱量,為氣候條件接近的發達國家的2~5位左右;很多空調建筑也沒有采取必要的保溫隔熱措施。建筑用能浪費極端嚴重,現在建筑能耗已占我國能源消費總量近1/4,其增長速度還將大大超過“八五”計劃期間能源生產可能增長的速度。如果放任這種高耗能建筑持續發展下去,能源生產勢必難以長期支撐此種浪費型需求,從而不得不組織大規模的舊房節能改造工作,耗費更多的人力物力。

       建筑節能的技術途徑為:采暖建筑的節能主要依靠減少圍護結構的散熱以及提高供熱系統的熱效率兩個方面。前者要求適當控制建筑體形系數,即建筑物外表面積與其所包圍的體積的比值,建筑外形盡可能規整,避免不必要的凸凹變化;加強門窗、外墻、屋頂和地面的保溫,采用高效保溫材料復合,使用多層門窗,用空心磚、加氣混凝土等新型墻體材料代替實心粘土磚;提高建筑物的氣密性,選用密封性能好的門窗并加密封條,用密封材料填實穿墻管線連接處裂隙;在夜間加強保溫的條件下,適當開大南窗,以增加太陽熱能的獲得。后者由要合理提高鍋爐的負荷離,改善鍋爐運行狀況,采用管網水平衡技術,以及加強供熱管道保溫等等。建筑節能的社會經濟效益表現在:(1)建筑節能與生態環境;(2)建筑節能與室內熱環境;(3)建筑節能與經濟效益。

       建筑節能的發展趨勢表現在:各國都在大力加強建筑節能和科學研究,發展新的建筑節能技術,采用新的節能材料和設備,除繼續改進多層密封窗,開發各種高效保溫材料,用于復合墻體、屋面和地面以外,還在研究開發紅外熱反射技術、硅氣凝膠材料、高效節能玻璃、太陽能利用技術、熱回收技術、新的建筑節能測試和計算技術等等。與此同時,還十分注意選擇經濟合理的建筑節能技術,重視節能試點建筑以至節能園區的示范和推廣作用,并在繼續修訂完善建筑節能技術標準,頒布配套的行政法規,不斷提高節能要求,挖掘節能潛力。

 
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